past participles

past participles
The past participle of a verb is used to form perfect tenses, passives, and, in some cases, adjectives. It is also called the `-ed' form, especially when it is used as an adjective.

Advances have continued, though actual productivity has fallen.

Jobs are still being lost.

We cannot refuse to teach children the required subjects.

See entries at ↑ Tenses and ↑ '-ed' adjectives.
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The past participle is usually the same as the past form of the verb, except in the case of irregular verbs. See entry at ↑ Irregular verbs.
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in non-finite clauses
In writing, a past participle can be used to begin a non-finite clause, with a passive meaning. For example, instead of writing `She was saddened by their betrayal and resigned', you could write `Saddened by their betrayal, she resigned'. The main clause can refer to a consequence of the situation mentioned in the past participle clause, or just to a related event that followed it.

Stunned by the swiftness of the assault, the enemy were overwhelmed.

Granted an amnesty and prematurely released, she rallied her followers and continued the struggle.

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This structure is used especially with past participles which indicate feelings. Alternative structures are `having been', `after having been', or `after being' followed by a past participle.

Having been left fatherless in early childhood he was brought up by his uncle.

...the prints of two hands pressed on the stone after having been dipped in red paint.

After being left for an hour in the shower room, we were placed in separate cells.

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Past participles can be used in clauses introduced by a subordinating conjunction, with no subject or auxiliary, when the subject would be the same as the one in the main clause.

Dogs, when threatened, make themselves smaller and whimper like puppies.

Although now recognised as an important habitat for birds, the area of Dorset heathland has been cut in half since 1962.

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after nouns
You can use a clause beginning with a past participle after a noun, `those', or an indefinite pronoun to identify or describe someone by saying what happens or has happened to them.

...a successful method of bringing up children rejected by their natural parents.

Many of those questioned in the poll agreed with the party's policy on defence.

It doesn't have to be someone appointed by the government.

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Useful english dictionary. 2012.

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  • Past participles — ◊ GRAMMAR The past participle of a verb is used to form perfect tenses, passives, and, in some cases, adjectives. It is also called the ed form, especially when it is used as an adjective. Advances have continued, though actual productivity has… …   Useful english dictionary

  • intransitive past participles — Most past participles are of transitive verbs and, when used as adjectives, denote an action performed on the noun or phrase they qualify; for example, the phrase a polished table denotes the state of the table as having been polished. However,… …   Modern English usage

  • past participle — past participles N COUNT In grammar, the past participle of a verb is a form that is usually the same as the past form and so ends in ed . A number of verbs have irregular past participles, for example break past participle broken , and come past …   English dictionary

  • past participle — noun count LINGUISTICS the form of a verb used to make perfect tenses and passive forms of verbs. Past participles are also sometimes used as adjectives, for example cooked in the phrase cooked vegetables …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • past participle — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms past participle : singular past participle plural past participles linguistics the form of a verb used to make the perfect tense and passive forms of verbs. Past participles are also sometimes used as… …   English dictionary

  • past participle — noun a participle that expresses completed action • Syn: ↑perfect participle • Hypernyms: ↑participle, ↑participial * * * noun, pl ⋯ ciples [count] grammar : the form of the verb that is used with “have” in perfect tenses and with “be” in passive …   Useful english dictionary

  • ˌpast ˈparticiple — noun [C] linguistics the form of a verb that is used for making perfect tenses and passive forms of verbs. Past participles are also sometimes used as adjectives, for example ‘cooked in the phrase ‘cooked vegetables …   Dictionary for writing and speaking English

  • participles — 1. There are two kinds of participle in English: the present participle ending in ing as in We are going, and the past participle ending in d or ed for many verbs and in t or en or some other form for others, as in Have you decided? / New houses… …   Modern English usage

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  • Romance copula — The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be ) in all Romance languages largely derive from the Latin verbs esse to be (ultimately from Proto Indo European *h1es , as in English is); stāre to stand (ultimately from Proto Indo European… …   Wikipedia

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